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Superiority and Virtue of the First Ten Days of the Islaamic Month Dhul-Hijjah
and the Deeds Legislated in these Days
By Shaykh Dr. 'Abdullaah Ibn 'Abdur-Rahmaan Jibreen
(The Author is a Member of the General Presidency of Islamic Research, Ifta, Call and Propagation, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He has been lecturing on Islam and has written and compiled many books and pamphlets on various Islamic topics.)
the praise belongs to Allah Most High, and may the blessings of Allah and Peace
and blessings of Allah be upon His Prophet Muhammad and his family and
companions, all of them.
Imam Bukhari narrated from Ibn 'Abbaas
(r.a., radhia Allahu 'anhu), that the Prophet (s.a.w., sallallahu
'alayhi wasallam) said: "There are not any days in which righteous
deeds done in them are more beloved to Allah than these days, i.e. the ten days
(of Dhul-Hijjah). They said: "O, Messenger of Allah, not even Jihad in the
path of Allah?" He said: "Not even Jihad in the path of Allah Most
High, except if a man goes out (for Jihad) with his self and his wealth, then he
doesn't return with anything from that."
Imaam Ahmad narrated from Ibn
'Umar (r.a.), from the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) that he said: "There
aren't any days greater, nor any days in which deeds done in them are more
beloved to Allah Most High, than these ten days (of Dhul-Hijjah). So, increase
in them the saying of Tahleel (Laa-ilaaha-ill-Allah), and Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar)
and Tahmeed (Al-hamdu-lillaah)."
Types of Deeds in These Ten Days
The performance of Hajj and 'Umrah, and these are the best of deeds that
may be done. And what indicates their superiority are a number of Ahadeeth,
one of which is the saying of (The Prophet, s.a.w.): "Performance of 'Umrah
is an expiation of the sins committed between it and the previous 'Umrah, and
the reward of the Hajj which is accepted by Allah Most High is nothing but
Paradise." (Bukhari and Muslim).
The fasting during these days as many of them as may be easy (for one to fast) -
especially the Day of 'Arafah. There is no doubt that the act of fasting is one
of the best deeds, and it is from what Allah Most High has chosen for himself,
as in the Hadeeth Qudsee: "Fasting is for Me, and it is I who give
reward for it. Verily, someone gives up his sexual passion, his food and his
drink for my sake..." (Compiled by Bukhari, Muslim, Malik, Tirmidhi,
Nasa’I and Ibn Majah).
Also, from Abu Sa'eed al-Khudree
(r.a.), who said that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) said: "No servant (of
Allah Most High) fasts one day in the way of Allah, except that Allah Most High
removes his face from the fire because of it (the distance of traveling) seventy
years." (compiled by Bukhari and Muslim).
Muslim narrated from Abu
Qataadah that the Prophet (s.a.w.) said: "Fasting the Day of 'Arafah will
be credited with Allah by forgiving one's sins of the previous year and the
at-Takbeer (saying: “Allahu Akbar) and adh-Dhikr (remembrance of Allah Most
High) in these (ten) days, because of the saying of Allah in Soorah al-Hajj
verse 28: "...And mention the name of Allah on the appointed Days..."
This has been explained (by
some) to mean the ten days (of Dhul-Hijjah), and the scholars consider it
desirable to increase adh-Dhikr (remembrance of Allah Most High) in these days,
because of the Hadeeth of Ibn 'Umar (r.a.) narrated by Ahmad, which says in it:
"...so increase in these days the Tahleel and Takbeer and Tahmeed".
Bukhari mentioned about Ibn
'Umar and Abu Hurayrah (r.a.) that the two of them used to go out to the market
place. During the ten days (of Dhul-Hijjah) saying “Allahu-Akbar”, causing
the people to also say it.
Ishaaq narrates from the
scholars of the Taabi'een that in these ten days they used to say: Allahu-Akbar,
Allahu-Akbar; Laa-ilaaha-ill-Allah; Wa Allahu-Akbar, Allahu-Akbar; Wa-lillaahil-hamd.
It is a beloved act to raise the
voice when saying the Takbeer in the markets, the houses, the streets, the
masajid (mosques) and other places, because of the saying of Allah Most High in
Soorah al-Hajj verse 37: "...that you may magnify Allah for His Guidance to
The saying of Takbeer in
congregation, i.e., everyone pronouncing the Takbeer with one voice, is
not permissible since this has not been transmitted (to us) from the early
generations of the Sahaabah and those who followed their ways. Verily the sunnah
is for everyone to say the Takbeer individually. And this is applicable
for all Dhikr and supplications, except if the person doesn't know what
to say. In that case he may repeat after someone else until he learns (the words
to be said). It is also permissible to make Dhikr with all the different wording
of Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) and Tahmeed (Al-hamdu-lillaah) and Tasbeeh
(Subhaan-Allah), and the rest of the Islamic legislated supplications (from
the Qur'an and Sunnah).
At-Tawbah (repentance) and abstaining from disobedience and all types of
sins, since forgiveness and mercy are the results of deeds. Disobedience is the
cause of being far away (from Allah Most High) and repulsion, while obedience is
the cause of being near (to Allah Most High) and His love. In the Hadeeth
narrated by Abu Hurayrah (r.a.), he said that the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.)
said: "Verily Allah has a sense of 'Ghayrah' (honor, prestige and
anger over its violation), and Allah's sense of Ghayrah is provoked when
a person does that which Allah has made prohibited." (Compiled by
Bukhari and Muslim).
Doing plenty of voluntary (nafl) righteous deeds of worship like prayer,
charity, Jihaad, reading the Qur'aan, commanding what is good and forbidding
what is evil, and other deeds like this. Verily they are of those deeds which
are multiplied in these days. Because, even those deeds which are less
preferred, in these days are superior and more beloved to Allah than superior
deeds done at other times - even the Jihaad which is one of the most
superior of all deeds, except in the case of one whose horse is killed and his
blood is spilled (loss of life in Jihaad).
It is legislated in these days to make at-Takbeer al-Mutlaq (unrestricted
to specific times or form) at all times of night and day until the time of the 'Eid
Prayer. Also, at-Takbeer al-Muqayyid (restricted to specific times and
done in a particular manner) is legislated, and it is done after the (five)
obligatory prayers which are performed in congregation. This begins from Dawn
(Fajr) on the Day of 'Arafah (the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah) for those not
performing Hajj, and from Noon (Dhuhr) on the Day of Sacrifice (10th of Dhul-Hijjah)
for those performing Hajj (pilgrims); and it continues until 'Asr prayer on the
last day of the days of Tashreeq (13th of Dhul-Hijjah).
The slaughtering of a sacrificial animal (Adhiyyah) is also
legislated for the Day of Sacrifice (10th) and the Days of Tashreeq (11th,
12th and 13th). This is the Sunnah of our father Ibraheem ('alayhis-salaam)
- from when Allah Most High redeemed his son by the great sacrifice (of an
animal in his place). It is authenticated that the Prophet (s.a.w.) slaughtered
(sacrificed) two horned rams, black and white in color, and that he slaughtered
them with his own hands, mentioned the name of Allah Most High (saying "Bismillaah"),
said Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar), and placed his foot on their sides (while
slaughtering them). (Compiled by Bukhari and Muslim)
Muslim and others narrated from Umm Salamah (r.a.) that the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.)
said: "If you see the Hilaal (new moon) of Dhul-Hijjah, and
any one of you wants to make a sacrifice, then he should not cut (anything) from
his hair and his nails." and in one narration he said: "...then he
should not take (cut) anything from his hair, nor from his nails, until he
performs the sacrifice." Perhaps this is because of the similarity with the
one who is bringing a sacrificial animal for slaughter (in Hajj). As
Allah Most High said: "...and do not shave your heads until the Hadee
(sacrifice) reaches the place of sacrifice..."
The apparent meaning of this
prohibition is that it is particularly for the one whom the sacrifice is for,
and does not include the wife or children, unless there is an individual
sacrifice for one of them. There is no harm in washing the head, or scratching
it, even if some hairs may fall out.
It is incumbent for the Muslim ( who is not making Hajj) to make
every effort to perform the ‘Eid Prayer wherever it is performed, and
to be present for the Khutbah and benefit. He must know the wisdom behind
the legislation of this ‘Eid (celebration). It is a day of thankfulness and
performing deeds of righteousness. So, he must not make it a day of wildness,
pride and vanity. He should not make it a season of disobedience and increase in
the forbidden things like music and singing, uncontrolled amusement, intoxicants
and the like - those things which could cause the cancellation of the good deeds
done in these ten days (of Dhul-Hijjah).
After what has been mentioned, it is fitting that every Muslim, male and
female, take advantage of these days by obeying Allah Most High, remembering
Him, thanking Him, fulfilling all the obligatory duties, and staying far away
from the prohibited things. He must take full advantage of this season, and the
open display of Allah's gifts to attain the pleasure of his Rabb.
Surely, Allah Most High is the One who grants success, and He is the Guide to the Straight Path. And may the blessings of Allah Most High, and peace and blessing of Allah be upon Muhammad (s.a.w.) and his family and companions.
[Da'wah] [Ideal Muslims]
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